ADİLE EMİROVA İLE RÖPORTAJ-İNCİ BOWMAN-www.iccrimea.org-27.03.2007

 

International Committee for Crimea Uluslararası Komitesi Kırım için

ICC, PO Box 15078, Washington, DC 20003. ICC, PO Box 15078, Washington, DC 20003.

 

On the Revival of the Crimean Tatar Language: Bu Revival Kırım Tatar Dili Tarihi:
An Interview with Professor Adile Emirova Bir Röportaj Profesör ile Adile Emirova

A specialist in Russian language and linguistics, Adile Emirova was born in Crimea and educated in Uzbekistan. Rus dili ve dil bilimi bir uzman, Adile Emirova Kırım'da doğdu ve Özbekistan'da eğitimli. She graduated from the Alisher Navai Samarkand State University, where she subsequently taught and completed her doctoral studies in 1969. O Alisher Navai Semerkant Devlet Üniversitesi, burada sonradan öğretti ve 1969 yılında doktora çalışmalarını tamamladı bitirdi. In addition to her better known work on Russian phraseology ( Russkaia frazeologiia v kommuniktivnom aspekte ), published in 1988, she is the author of several dictionaries and books, and numerous scholarly articles. Rus biçimi (Russkaia frazeologiia V kommuniktivnom Aspekte), 1988 yılında yayımlanan onun iyi bilinen eserin yanı sıra, o birkaç sözlükleri ve kitap yazar, ve çok sayıda bilimsel makale olduğunu. After she moved to Crimea in 1990, she has been actively involved in the revival and development of the Crimean Tatar language. Sonra o Kırım için 1990 yılında taşındı, o aktif canlanma ve Kırım Tatar dilinin geliştirilmesi uğraşmıştır. Her recent publications include a book on Bekir Çobanzade's work on the Crimean Tatar grammar, 2003; a translation of Cengiz Dagci's autobiography ( Hatiralarda Cengiz Dagci ) from Turkish into Russian, 2003; and a dictionary of Russian-Crimean Tatar phrases, 2004. Onun son yayınlar Kırım Tatar dilbilgisi, 2003 Bekir Çobanzade çalışmaları üzerine bir kitap; Rusça, 2003, Türk kimden Cengiz Dagci's otobiyografi (Hatiralarda Cengiz Dagci) bir çeviri yer alıyor ve Rus bir sözlüğü-Kırım Tatar ifadeler, 2004. She is a member of the Crimean Academy of Sciences, a member of the Ukrainian National Writers' Union, and a Ukrainian Distinguished Scholar in Science and Technology. O Kırım Bilimler Akademisi, Ukrayna Ulusal Yazarlar Birliği üyesi ve Bilim ve Teknoloji bir Ukrayna Değerli Akademik bir üyesidir. I met with Professor Emirova during her visit to the Washington, DC area in August 2006, and she recently completed the following written interview. Ben Profesör Emirova ile Washington, Ağustos 2006 yılında DC area, onu ziyaret sırasında bir araya geldi ve o son aşağıdaki yazılı mülakat tamamlandı. — Inci Bowman - İnci Bowman

IB. You were a young girl when the Crimean Tatars were deported from their homeland in 1944. IB. Bir genç kız zaman Kırım Tatarlarının were 1944 de yurt gelen göç. Could you share with us some of your memories about the Surgun. Bize bazı Surgun ilgili anıları ile paylaşabilir misiniz.

AE. I was 11, when the Crimean Tatars were deported from the Crimea. Ben 11, zaman Kırım Tatarlarının olan Kırım gelen göç oldu. Of course, I remembered much myself, but when I decided to write down my recollections of that tragic day, I asked my father and elder sister about those events. Tabii ki, ama kendimi daha hatırladım ben bu trajik gün benim Recollections aşağı yazmaya karar verdim, ben ve bu olaylar hakkında ablam babam istedi. At the end of 1989 I wrote memoirs "Nostalgia" and sent it to the Crimean Tatar newspaper Lenin Bayragi, which was published in the capital of Uzbekistan — Tashkent. 1989 yılının sonunda I "Nostalgia" ve Kırım Tatar gazetesi Lenin Bayragi olan Özbekistan ve başkentinde yayınlandı - Taşkent gönderdiler anıları yazdı. The text was translated into the Crimean Tatar language and published in two issues of the newspaper, February 1 and 3, 1990. Metin Kırım Tatar dilinde tercüme ve gazete, 1 Şubat ve 3, 1990 iki konu yayınlanmıştır. The following is an extract form that publication: Aşağıda bir ayıklayabilirsiniz formu bu yayınıdır:

Late at night we were trucked and taken to the railway station through Ay-Petry. Biz trucked ve Ay ile demiryolu istasyonu-Petry götürdüler Geç geceleri. The same night we were put into the freight wagons, soldiers closed the doors from outside, and the train set out to an unknown destination. Ve yük vagonları üzerinde koymak vardı Aynı gece, asker dışından ve kapıları kapalı tren bilinmeyen bir hedef için ayarlayın. They opened the doors only far from towns and villages. Sadece çok köy ve kasabalardan gelen kapı açıldı. Many people who had not managed to return to the wagons after the stop were left in uninhabited places where they soon died. Bu vagonlar dönmek için yönetilen hadn't Birçok insan sonra durdurmak tenha yerlerde kalmıştı nerede yakında öldü. The dead had to be left just on the ground near the wagons because we were not allowed to burry them. Ölüler ve vagonlar çünkü onlara Burry izin yoktu yakın yer Yalnızca sol gerekiyordu. It took us more than 20 days to get to the Tashkent region, where we were taken off the train and to a state farm (sovkhoz). Bize Taşkent bölge, nerede tren kapalı alındı ve devlet çiftliği (sovkhoz) için fazla 20 gün sürdü. For the first three months we lived under trees, on the ground because there were no spare houses. Zemin çünkü hiçbir yedek evleri vardı biz ağaçları altında yaşamış olan ilk üç ay için. We were starving, were ill, had no clothes and shoes, as we were forbidden to take anything with us when we left our homes. Biz kötü olduğunu, aç olduğunu kıyafet ve ayakkabıları vardı gibi bize zaman bizim evlerde kalan bir şey almak yasak edildi.

The interested reader may refer to the full text of my memoir, published at the "Crimea and Crimean Tatars" Web site (in Russian): www.kirimtatar.com İlgilenen okuyucu anı, tüm metin, yayınlanan başvurun olabilir "Kırım ve Kırım Tatarlarının" Web sitesini Rusça (olarak): www.kirimtatar.com

IB. How did you become interested in the Russian language and linguistics, and what do you feel is your major contribution to the field? IB. Nasıl Rus dili ve dil bilimi ile ilgilenen haline mi, ne hissediyorsun yapma alanı için önemli katkısı nedir?

Adile Emirova

Adile Emirova Adile Emirova

AE. There were no Crimean Tatar schools in places of deportation. İşte sürgün yeri yok Kırım Tatar okul vardı. Children studied only in Russian and Uzbek schools. Çocuklar Rusça ve Özbekçe okullar sadece okudu. In 1952 I finished school with honors and wanted to study at the university. 1952 yılında onur ile okulu bitirdikten sonra üniversitede çalışma istedim. But there was no university in our small town. Ama bizim küçük kasabada bir üniversite oldu. It was also necessary to get a special permission from the main KGB commandant's office in Tashkent to go to another town. Ayrıca Taşkent'te ana KGB kumandan ofisi özel bir izni başka bir şehre gitmek için gerekliydi. The permission was not generally given as they did not want Crimean Tatars to get higher education. Olarak, Kırım Tatarları yüksek eğitim almak istiyorum didn't izni genellikle verilmiş değildir. One might say I entered Samarkand University's Department of Russian Philology by chance. Benim en şans Semerkant'takı Üniversitesi Bölümü Rus Filoloji girmişseniz diyebilirsiniz. Hence my special interest in the Russian language and literature. Rus dili ve edebiyatı Dolayısıyla benim özel ilgi.

My scientific researches in the field of Russian phraseology are known in many countries interested in the same problems such as the countries of the former USSR, Germany, Austria, the USA, Bulgaria, Croatia, etc. The special field of scientific analysis of Russian phraseology, ie communicative (cognitive) phraseology, has been developed by me. Benim bilimsel Rus biçimi alanında araştırmalar birçok ülkede aynı sorunlara eski SSCB, Almanya, Avusturya, ABD, Bulgaristan, Hırvatistan, Rusya vb deyişbilim bilimsel analiz özel alan ülkeler gibi ilgilendi bilinmez , iletişim (bilişsel) biçimi, yani bana göre geliştirilmiştir. I am thankful to Allah for this because at present I use all my knowledge of the theory of philology here in the Crimea for studying and reviving the Crimean Tatar language. Ben Allah için bu değer, çünkü burada Kırım eğitim ve Kırım Tatar dilini canlandırma filoloji ve kuramın tüm bilgileri kullanmak anda şükran duyuyorum.

What have I done and what am I doing in this direction? Ben ne yaptım ve bu yönde yapıyorum? I am studying such socio-linguistic problems as language competence of Crimean Tatars, the status of language and language policy in the Crimea and Ukraine. Ben Kırım Tatarları, Kırım Özerk ve Ukrayna dil ve dil politikası durumunu dil yeterlilik gibi sosyo-dilsel sorunları eğitim duyuyorum. I have made presentations at various international conferences - more than once in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kiev; in Germany (1993), Austria (1995), Japan (1997), France (2004) and others. Çeşitli uluslararası konferanslarda sunum yaptık - birden fazla Moskova, St Petersburg, Kiev, Avusturya (1995), Japonya (1997), Fransa (2004) ve diğerleri Almanya (1993), de. I have published dictionaries and books, supervised research of post-graduate students on the problems of the Crimean Tatar language, delivered lectures on the theory of language to Crimean Tatar students; and translated from Turkish into Russian the writings of an outstanding Crimean Tatar author living in London — Jangiz Dagzhi (Cengiz Dagci). Ben Kırım Tatar dilinin sorunları üzerine, teslim sözlükler ve kitaplar, yazının denetimli araştırma-lisansüstü öğrencileri yayınlanan var Kırım Tatar öğrencilere dil teorisi üzerine dersler ve Türkiye olağanüstü bir Kırım Tatar yazar yaşayan Rus yazılarının içine çevrilen Londra - Jangiz Dagzhi (Cengiz Dagci). More than 200 articles belonging to different genres, half of them devoted to the problems of Crimean Tatar philology, have already been written and published. 200'den fazla makale farklı türler, bunların yarısına ait Kırım Tatar filoloji ve sorunlar, sadık zaten yazılmış ve yayınlanmış.

IB. After you returned to Crimea, as you indicated, you became interested in the Crimean Tatar language. IB. Sonra Kırım iade gibi gösterilir, bu Kırım Tatar dilinde ilgi oldu. Why is Crimean Tatar considered an endangered language? Neden Kırım Tatar Tehlikede olan bir dil olarak? What has been done to revive the language and what should be done? Ne ve ne yapılması gerektiğini dile canlandırmak için yapıldı?

I returned to my homeland, the Crimea, upon invitation of the rector of Simferopol University in December 1990. Ben Simferopol Üniversitesi Rektör ve daveti üzerine benim yurt, Kırım Özerk, Aralık 1990 yılında döndü. I took up a position of Professor of Russian Philology. Ben Profesör Rus Philology of konum kadar sürdü. The Department of the Crimean Tatar Language and Literature was founded at the university the same year. Bölüm Kırım Tatar Dili ve Edebiyatı üniversitede aynı yıl kuruldu. I delivered lectures on the Russian language to the students of this department, but I always tried to draw a parallel between Russian and the Crimean Tatar languages and to characterize its categories. Ben verilen bu bölümün öğrencileri için Rus dili ile ilgili dersler, ama ben her zaman Rusya ve Kırım Tatar dil ve sınıflandırması karakterize arasında bir paralel çizmek için çalıştı. So, gradually, being a specialist of the Russian language, I faced the necessity of studying the problems of my native language. Yani, yavaş yavaş, Rus dili uzman olmak, benim anadil ve sorunları çalışma gerekliliğini karşılaştı.

Why is the Crimean Tatar language still under the threat of disappearance? Neden Kırım Tatar dili yok ve hala tehdit altında mı? Two generations were born and grew up in exile. İki kuşak doğmuş ve sürgünde büyüdüm. Almost all of them were taught in Russian schools and some of them in Uzbek ones. Hemen hemen hepsi Rusça okullarda ve ders vardı bazıları Özbek olanları ile. There were many mixed marriages, and children of such families speak only Russian. Pek çok karma evlilikler olduğunu ve bu ailelerin çocukları sadece Rusça konuşabilir. I studied this problem and came to the following conclusions. Bu sorunu eğitimi ve aşağıdaki sonuçlara geldik.

In terms of language competence, Crimean Tatars can be divided into four groups: Dil yeterlilik açısından, Kırım Tatarları dört gruba ayrılabilir:

  • symmetric bilinguals, who fluently speak both Russian and mother tongue in all social spheres; kim akıcı konuşmak simetrik bilinguals, ve anadili tüm toplumsal alanlarda Rusya;
  • asymmetric bilinguals, using mother tongue only in family and Russian in all other spheres of life, including family; asimetrik bilinguals, ailesi de dahil olmak üzere yaşamın tüm diğer alanlarda, aile sadece ve Rus kullanarak anadili;
  • asymmetric bilinguals, using the Crimean Tatar language (in the form of local dialect) in family and having limited usage of Russian; asimetrik bilinguals, yerel lehçesi şeklinde () ailede ve Rusya sınırlı kullanım sonra, Kırım Tatar dilini kullanarak;
  • monolinguals, having the command of only Russian or only Crimean Tatar. monolinguals ve komut kalmadan sadece veya sadece Kırım Tatar Rusça.

The first and the third groups are restricted numerically. Ve üçüncü grup ilk sayısal kısıtlandı. The first group includes the representatives of intellectuals: teachers and instructors of the Crimean Tatar language and literature, writers and journalists; the third group comprises the elderly people with a low level of education. İlk grup aydın temsilcileri: öğretmen ve Kırım Tatar dili ve edebiyatı, yazar ve gazetecilerin eğitmenler içerir; üçüncü grup eğitim düzeyi düşük olan yaşlı kişiden oluşmaktadır. The second group is the most numerous one, which includes young and middle-aged people, having received education in Russian schools and institutions of higher learning. İkinci grup olan küçük ve orta içerir, en çok bir, yaşlı insanlar, Rusça okullar ve yüksek öğrenim kurumlarında eğitim aldı yaşıyordur. Monolinguals are presented by two unequal parts: a) a numerous group of children, young and middle-aged people, as well as those having been born and brought up in mixed families (speak only Russian); b) a small group of very elderly people who have not been taught in Russian schools (speak only Crimean Tatar). For the representatives of the first two social groups permanent switching from one language into another is common not only in the spheres of communication, but even within the limits of one communicative act. Monolinguals iki eşitsiz parça: Çocukların a) bir çok grup, genç ve orta yaşlı insanların yanı sıra doğmuş oldu ve karışık ailelerde sahiplendiler olarak (sadece Rusça) konuşmak; çok yaşlı b) küçük bir grup sunulmaktadır eden Rus okullarında öğretti henüz insanlar () sadece Kırım Tatar konuşmak. başka bir ortak değil sadece iletişim Küreleri, ancak bir iletişim ve sınırlarını bile içine bir dil kullanarak ilk iki sosyal gruplar sürekli geçiş temsilcileri için hareket. Their speech often includes various Russian "disseminations" and loan words Onların konuşması sık sık "ve kredi kelimeleri çeşitli Rus" disseminations içerir

IB. Why do Crimean Tatars, who for the most part consider Crimean Tatar to be their mother tongue, often use Russian even in the home environment? IB. Neden olan çoğu kendi anadili, sık sık Rus ev ortamında bile kullanmak üzere Kırım Tatar dikkate Kırım Tatarları, do?

AE. The reasons are both linguistic and non-linguistic. Nedenleri ve olmayan dil-dil vardır. The main reason is their poor vocabulary. Temel nedeni onların kötü bir kelime. Let me expand on the problem of the revival and development of the Crimean Tatar language, which has two aspects: socio-political and linguistic. Bana canlanma ve iki yönleri: sosyo-olan Kırım Tatar dil gelişiminin sorunu üzerine genişletmek Hadi siyasi ve dilsel.

Socio-political aspect the of revival and development presupposes the solution of a number of interrelated problems: Sosyo-canlanma ve kalkınma ilişkili sorunlar, çok sayıda çözüm presupposes siyasi yönü:

1. Distinguishing social status of the language. According to Article 10 of the Constitution of Ukraine, the Crimean Tatar language has a status of a minority language - the language of a national minority. Dilin sosyal statü ayırt. Madde 10 Anayasa Ukrayna of göre, Kırım Tatar dilini bir azınlık dili bir durum - ulusal azınlık dili vardır. In practice, as the last decade has shown, such status does not qualify it for necessary financial support from the government. Today minority languages are offered substantial challenges with the ratification by Ukraine of the European Charter for regional and minority languages (2003). Pratik olarak, son on yılda göstermiştir, bu durum hükümetten gerekli maddi destek için hak değildir. Bugün azınlık dilleri için Ukrayna Avrupa Kiralama tarafından onaylanması ile önemli sorunları sunulmaktadır ve azınlık diller (2003) bölgesel. This presupposes periodic accountability of multinational state as regards to its language policy. Bu, dil politikası konusunda çok devlet periyodik hesap presupposes. The implementation of European Charter statutes, ie their adoption as part of Ukrainian social policy, is pending. Avrupa Kiralık Tüzük ve uygulama, Ukrayna sosyal politikanın parçası olarak, beklemede bunların kabulü yani.

2. Expanding the system of upbringing and educating children in the Crimean Tatar language. Additional schools with curriculum in Crimean Tatar should be opened. Yetiştirme ve Kırım Tatar dilinde çocuk yetiştirmek ve sistemin genişletilmesi. Kırım Tatar olarak müfredat ile Ek okulları açılmalıdır. There are 15 such schools today, which provide education for about 5,000 pupils out of a total number of 40,000 children of school age. 15 Bu tür okulları bugün, yaklaşık 5000 öğrenci için okul çağındaki 40.000 çocukların toplam sayısı dışında eğitim verin. Two Crimean universities prepare teachers of the Crimean Tatar language and literature, and the necessary educational and professional literature is published. İki Kırım üniversitelerin ve Kırım Tatar dili ve edebiyatı öğretmenleri hazırlamak, gerekli eğitim ve mesleki literatürde yayınlanmıştır.

3. Extension of functional area of the Crimean Tatar language. Optimal mastering of any language takes place in a permanent language environment. Extension of the Kırım Tatar dilinin fonksiyonel alanı. Optimal bir dil Mastering kalıcı bir dil ortamında yer alır. Various factors play a role in creating such environment: mass media, macro- and microtoponymy; road signs, signboards, advertisements, slogans etc. At present the Crimean Tatar radio and television has two and five hours of airtime respectively, and four magazines and three national newspapers are published in Crimean Tatar. Çeşitli faktörler bu ortamı yaratarak bir rol oynar: medya, makro ve microtoponymy; yol işaretleri, signboards, reklamlar, Kırım Tatar Radyo ve televizyon sırasıyla ve dört dergi normal saat iki ve beş ve üç Halen sloganlar vb ulusal gazeteler Kırım Tatar olarak yayınlanmaktadır. The original Crimean Tatar toponymy has not been restored yet. Orijinal Kırım Tatar toponymy henüz restore edilmedi.

In addition to the social-political aspect, in the revival of any language the linguistic aspect also plays a role. Sosyal-politik yönü ek olarak, dil yönü de rol oynuyor herhangi bir dile ilişkin canlanma içinde. Collecting and preserving all surviving dialects of the language in technologically feasible media are as important as the codification and optimization of standards in literary language. Toplama ve teknolojik açıdan uygun medyada dilin lehçeleri kalan korunması gibi kanun ve standartların en iyi edebiyat dili olarak önemlidir. These problems are not being addressed today because of the lack of qualified specialists and sufficient funding from the government. Bu sorunlar bugün nitelikli uzman ve hükümetin yeterli finansman eksikliği nedeniyle ele olmak değildir. The measures so far taken for the revival of the Crimean Tatar language should be continued. Söz konusu tedbirler şimdiye kadar Kırım Tatar dilinin bir canlanma için alınan devam edilmelidir. In general, there are reasons for optimism, as I believe the Crimean Tatar will be restored to its original status as the language of native people of Crimea. Ben Kırım Tatar Kırım ve yerli halkın dili olarak orijinal durumuna geri olacak genel olarak, iyimser olmak için nedenler vardır.

I am happy that Allah allowed me to come back to my homeland and to be involved in the revival and development of my native language as the foundation of our national culture. Ben Allah'ın bana yurt ve geri gelmek için canlanma ve ulusal kültürün temeli olarak anadil gelişimi yer izin mutluyum.

27 March 2007 27 Mart 2007

Posted: 12 April 2007 Yayınlanan: 12 Nisan 2007

 

International Committee for Crimea

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On the Revival of the Crimean Tatar Language:
An Interview with Professor Adile Emirova

A specialist in Russian language and linguistics, Adile Emirova was born in Crimea and educated in Uzbekistan. She graduated from the Alisher Navai Samarkand State University, where she subsequently taught and completed her doctoral studies in 1969. In addition to her better known work on Russian phraseology (Russkaia frazeologiia v kommuniktivnom aspekte), published in 1988, she is the author of several dictionaries and books, and numerous scholarly articles. After she moved to Crimea in 1990, she has been actively involved in the revival and development of the Crimean Tatar language. Her recent publications include a book on Bekir Çobanzade's work on the Crimean Tatar grammar, 2003; a translation of Cengiz Dagci's autobiography (Hatiralarda Cengiz Dagci) from Turkish into Russian, 2003; and a dictionary of Russian-Crimean Tatar phrases, 2004. She is a member of the Crimean Academy of Sciences, a member of the Ukrainian National Writers' Union, and a Ukrainian Distinguished Scholar in Science and Technology. I met with Professor Emirova during her visit to the Washington, DC area in August 2006, and she recently completed the following written interview. — Inci Bowman

IB. You were a young girl when the Crimean Tatars were deported from their homeland in 1944. Could you share with us some of your memories about the Surgun.

AE. I was 11, when the Crimean Tatars were deported from the Crimea. Of course, I remembered much myself, but when I decided to write down my recollections of that tragic day, I asked my father and elder sister about those events. At the end of 1989 I wrote memoirs "Nostalgia" and sent it to the Crimean Tatar newspaper Lenin Bayragi, which was published in the capital of Uzbekistan — Tashkent. The text was translated into the Crimean Tatar language and published in two issues of the newspaper, February 1 and 3, 1990. The following is an extract form that publication:

Late at night we were trucked and taken to the railway station through Ay-Petry. The same night we were put into the freight wagons, soldiers closed the doors from outside, and the train set out to an unknown destination. They opened the doors only far from towns and villages. Many people who had not managed to return to the wagons after the stop were left in uninhabited places where they soon died. The dead had to be left just on the ground near the wagons because we were not allowed to burry them. It took us more than 20 days to get to the Tashkent region, where we were taken off the train and to a state farm (sovkhoz). For the first three months we lived under trees, on the ground because there were no spare houses. We were starving, were ill, had no clothes and shoes, as we were forbidden to take anything with us when we left our homes.

The interested reader may refer to the full text of my memoir, published at the "Crimea and Crimean Tatars" Web site (in Russian): www.kirimtatar.com

IB. How did you become interested in the Russian language and linguistics, and what do you feel is your major contribution to the field?

Adile Emirova

Adile Emirova

AE. There were no Crimean Tatar schools in places of deportation. Children studied only in Russian and Uzbek schools. In 1952 I finished school with honors and wanted to study at the university. But there was no university in our small town. It was also necessary to get a special permission from the main KGB commandant's office in Tashkent to go to another town. The permission was not generally given as they did not want Crimean Tatars to get higher education. One might say I entered Samarkand University's Department of Russian Philology by chance. Hence my special interest in the Russian language and literature.

My scientific researches in the field of Russian phraseology are known in many countries interested in the same problems such as the countries of the former USSR, Germany, Austria, the USA, Bulgaria, Croatia, etc. The special field of scientific analysis of Russian phraseology, i.e. communicative (cognitive) phraseology, has been developed by me. I am thankful to Allah for this because at present I use all my knowledge of the theory of philology here in the Crimea for studying and reviving the Crimean Tatar language.

What have I done and what am I doing in this direction? I am studying such socio-linguistic problems as language competence of Crimean Tatars, the status of language and language policy in the Crimea and Ukraine. I have made presentations at various international conferences - more than once in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kiev; in Germany (1993), Austria (1995), Japan (1997), France (2004) and others. I have published dictionaries and books, supervised research of post-graduate students on the problems of the Crimean Tatar language, delivered lectures on the theory of language to Crimean Tatar students; and translated from Turkish into Russian the writings of an outstanding Crimean Tatar author living in London — Jangiz Dagzhi (Cengiz Dagci). More than 200 articles belonging to different genres, half of them devoted to the problems of Crimean Tatar philology, have already been written and published.

IB. After you returned to Crimea, as you indicated, you became interested in the Crimean Tatar language. Why is Crimean Tatar considered an endangered language? What has been done to revive the language and what should be done?

I returned to my homeland, the Crimea, upon invitation of the rector of Simferopol University in December 1990. I took up a position of Professor of Russian Philology. The Department of the Crimean Tatar Language and Literature was founded at the university the same year. I delivered lectures on the Russian language to the students of this department, but I always tried to draw a parallel between Russian and the Crimean Tatar languages and to characterize its categories. So, gradually, being a specialist of the Russian language, I faced the necessity of studying the problems of my native language.

Why is the Crimean Tatar language still under the threat of disappearance? Two generations were born and grew up in exile. Almost all of them were taught in Russian schools and some of them in Uzbek ones. There were many mixed marriages, and children of such families speak only Russian. I studied this problem and came to the following conclusions.

In terms of language competence, Crimean Tatars can be divided into four groups:

  • symmetric bilinguals, who fluently speak both Russian and mother tongue in all social spheres;
  • asymmetric bilinguals, using mother tongue only in family and Russian in all other spheres of life, including family;
  • asymmetric bilinguals, using the Crimean Tatar language (in the form of local dialect) in family and having limited usage of Russian;
  • monolinguals, having the command of only Russian or only Crimean Tatar.

The first and the third groups are restricted numerically. The first group includes the representatives of intellectuals: teachers and instructors of the Crimean Tatar language and literature, writers and journalists; the third group comprises the elderly people with a low level of education. The second group is the most numerous one, which includes young and middle-aged people, having received education in Russian schools and institutions of higher learning. Monolinguals are presented by two unequal parts: a) a numerous group of children, young and middle-aged people, as well as those having been born and brought up in mixed families (speak only Russian); b) a small group of very elderly people who have not been taught in Russian schools (speak only Crimean Tatar). For the representatives of the first two social groups permanent switching from one language into another is common not only in the spheres of communication, but even within the limits of one communicative act. Their speech often includes various Russian "disseminations" and loan words

IB. Why do Crimean Tatars, who for the most part consider Crimean Tatar to be their mother tongue, often use Russian even in the home environment?

AE. The reasons are both linguistic and non-linguistic. The main reason is their poor vocabulary. Let me expand on the problem of the revival and development of the Crimean Tatar language, which has two aspects: socio-political and linguistic.

Socio-political aspect the of revival and development presupposes the solution of a number of interrelated problems:

1. Distinguishing social status of the language. According to Article 10 of the Constitution of Ukraine, the Crimean Tatar language has a status of a minority language - the language of a national minority. In practice, as the last decade has shown, such status does not qualify it for necessary financial support from the government. Today minority languages are offered substantial challenges with the ratification by Ukraine of the European Charter for regional and minority languages (2003). This presupposes periodic accountability of multinational state as regards to its language policy. The implementation of European Charter statutes, i.e. their adoption as part of Ukrainian social policy, is pending.

2. Expanding the system of upbringing and educating children in the Crimean Tatar language. Additional schools with curriculum in Crimean Tatar should be opened. There are 15 such schools today, which provide education for about 5,000 pupils out of a total number of 40,000 children of school age. Two Crimean universities prepare teachers of the Crimean Tatar language and literature, and the necessary educational and professional literature is published.

3. Extension of functional area of the Crimean Tatar language. Optimal mastering of any language takes place in a permanent language environment. Various factors play a role in creating such environment: mass media, macro- and microtoponymy; road signs, signboards, advertisements, slogans etc. At present the Crimean Tatar radio and television has two and five hours of airtime respectively, and four magazines and three national newspapers are published in Crimean Tatar. The original Crimean Tatar toponymy has not been restored yet.

In addition to the social-political aspect, in the revival of any language the linguistic aspect also plays a role. Collecting and preserving all surviving dialects of the language in technologically feasible media are as important as the codification and optimization of standards in literary language. These problems are not being addressed today because of the lack of qualified specialists and sufficient funding from the government. The measures so far taken for the revival of the Crimean Tatar language should be continued. In general, there are reasons for optimism, as I believe the Crimean Tatar will be restored to its original status as the language of native people of Crimea.

I am happy that Allah allowed me to come back to my homeland and to be involved in the revival and development of my native language as the foundation of our national culture.

27 March 2007

Posted: 12 April 2007


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